Comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje: de la gestión empresarial a la gestión educativa
Palabras clave:aprendizaje, docente, gestión educativa, escuela, organización
Desde finales de los años 80’s, la gestión educativa ha dado un vuelco de paradigma. Alguna vez basada en estrategias pedagógicas individualistas y jerárquicas, hoy defiende su carácter reflexivo y colaborativo. Originadas en la gestión empresarial, las comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje han demostrado un impacto positivo en gestión educativa. Mediante una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica, la presente investigación explora la teoría de las comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje, analizando sus componentes principales: estructura organizativa flexible, liderazgo compartido, valores organizacionales, visión compartida y cultura escolar colaborativa. Finalmente, se discuten las implicancias de comprender el problema de la educación peruana desde una perspectiva organizacional.
Ahn, J. (2017). Taking a step to identify how to create professional learning communities. Report of a case study of a Korean public high school on how to create and sustain a school-based teacher professional learning community. International Education Series, 10(1), 82-92.
Alcedo, Y., Chacón, C. y Chacón, M. (2014). Las comunidades de aprendizaje: Estrategia de desarrollo profesional de los docentes de inglés. Educere, 18(61), 483-494.
Allen, D. (2013). Reconstructing professional learning community as collective creation. Improving Schools, 16(3), 191-208.
Álvarez, G. (2006). El aprendizaje organizacional como eje de desarrollo en la organización escolar. Educación, 15(29), 7-34.
Andrews, D., and Lewis, M. (2002). The experience of a professional community: Teachers developing a new image of themselves and their workplace. EducationalResearch, 44(3), 237-254.
Antal, A., Meusburger, P., and Suarsana, L. (Eds.). (2014). Learning organizations: Extending the field. Berlin: Springer.
Argote, L. (2011). Organizational learning research: Past, present and future. Management Learning, 42(4), 439-446.
Austin, M., and Harkins, D. (2008). Assessing change: Can organizational learning “work” for schools? The Learning Organization, 15(2), 105-125.
Baligh, H. (2006). Organizational structures. New York: Springer.
Battersby, S., and Verdi, B. (2015). The culture of professional learning communities and connections to improve teacher efficacy and support student learning. Arts Education Policy Review, 116(1), 22-29.
Bell, S., Whitwell, G., and Lukas, B. (2002). Schools of thought in organizational learning. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(1), 70-86.
Bellibas, M., Bulut, O., and Gedik, S. (2017). Investigating professional learning communities in Turkish schools: the effects of contextual factors. Professional Development in Education, 43(3), 353-374.
Beltrán, A. y Seinfeld, J. (2013). La trampa educativa en el Perú: Cuando la educación llega a muchos pero sirve a pocos. Lima: Universidad del Pacífico.
Berg, G. (1982) Research into the school as an organization. I: A presentation and discussion of research literature with a bearing on the school as an organization. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 26(2), 95-117.
Bolívar, A. (2011). Aprender a liderar líderes: Competencias para un liderazgo directivo que promueva el liderazgo docente. Educar, 47(2), 253-275.
---------- (2013). Comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje: Instrumentos de diagnóstico y evaluación. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 62(1), 1-12.
Botha, E. (2012). Turning the tide: Creating Professional Learning Communities (PLC) to improve teaching practice and learning in South African public schools. Africa Education Review, 9(2), 395-411.
Brodie, K. (2013). The power of professional learning communities. Education as Change, 17(1), 5-18.
---------- (2014). Learning about learner errors in professional learning communities. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 85(2), 221-239.
Buffum, A., and Hinman, C. (2006). Professional learning communities: reigniting passion and purpose. Leadership, 35(5), 16-19.
Buttram, J., and Farley-Ripple, E. (2016). The role of principals in professional learning communities. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 15(2), 192-220.
Carpenter, D. (2015). School culture and leadership of professional learning communities. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(5), 682-694.
Carpenter-Aeby, T., Aeby, V., and Mozingo, M. (2011). A practice evaluation of professional learning communities among school social workers using a recollection proxy pretest design. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 21(7), 766-783.
Castillo, P., Puigdellivol, I. y Antúnez, S. (2017). El liderazgo compartido como factor de sostenibilidad del proyecto de comunidades de aprendizajes. EstudiosPedagógicos, 43(1), 41-59.
Chen, P., and Wang, T. (2015). Exploring the evolution of a teacher professional learning community: A longitudinal case study at a Taiwanese high school. Teacher Development, 19(4), 427-444.
Chen, P., Lee, C., Lin, H., and Zhang, C. (2016). Factors that develop effective professional learning communities in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 248-265.
Cheng, X., and Wu, L. (2016). The affordances of teacher professional learning communities: A case study of a Chinese secondary school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 58, 54-67.
Cherrington, S., and Thornton, K. (2015). The nature of professional learning communities in New Zealand early childhood education: An exploratory study. Professional Development in Education, 41(2), 310-328.
Chichibu, T., and Kihara, T. (2013). How Japanese schools build a professional learning community by lesson study. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 2(1), 12-25.
Chou, C. (2011). Teachers’ professional development: investigating teachers’ learning to do action research in a professional learning community. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(3), 421-437.
Deal, T., and Peterson, K. (2016). Shaping school culture. California: Wiley.
DeMatthews, D. (2014). Principal and teacher collaboration: An exploration of distributed leadership in professional learning communities. International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, 2(2), 176-206.
Diamond, J., and Spillane, J. (2016). School leadership and management from a distributed perspective: A 2016 retrospective and prospective. Management in Education, 30(4), 147-154.
Díaz, C. (2005). La organización escolar: ¿Burocracia o comunidad? Reflexiones desde una mirada ética. Revista Educación, 14(26), 43-58.
DiPaola, M., and Hoy, W. (2015). Leadership and school quality. Greenwhich: Information Age Publishing.
Dogan, S. Pringle, R., and Mesa, J. (2016). The impacts of professional learning communities on science teachers’ knowledge, practice and student learning: a review. Professional Development in Education, 42(4), 569-588.
Dogan, S., Tatık, R., and Yurtseven, N. (2017). Professional learning communities assessment: Adaptation, internal validity, and multidimensional model testing in Turkish context. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 17(4), 1075-1101.
Dooner, A., Mandzuk, D., and Clifton, R. (2008). Stages of collaboration and the realities of professional learning communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(3), 564-574.
DuFour, R. (1999). Help wanted: Principals who can lead professional learning communities. NASSP Bulletin, 83(604), 12-17.
---------- (2004). What is a professional learning community? EducationalLeadership, 61(8), 6-11.
---------- (2007). Professional learning communities: A bandwagon, an idea worth considering, or our best hope for high levels of learning? Middle School Journal, 39(1), 4-8.
DuFour, R., and Mattos, M. (2013). How do principals really improve schools? Educational Leadership, 70(7), 34-40.
Eaker, R., and Gonzalez, D. (2006-2007). Leading in professional learning communities. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 24(1), 6-13.
Edmonson, A., and Moingeon, B. (1998). From organizational learning to the learning organization. Management Learning, 29(1), 5-20.
English, F. (Ed.). (2015). The SAGE guide to educational leadership and management. Boston: SAGE.
Farley-Ripple, E., and Buttram, J. (2014). Developing collaborative data use through professional learning communities: Early lessons from Delaware. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 42, 41-53.
Fauske, J., and Raybould, R. (2005). Organizational learning theory in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(1), 22-40.
Fazal, H. (2017). Role of organizational learning and knowledge management. Holistica, 8(3), 19-32.Fresko, B., and Alhija, F. (2015). Induction seminars as professional learning communities for beginning teachers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 43(1), 36-48.
Gephart, M., and Marsick, V. (2016). Strategic organizational learning. New York: Springer.
Golden, D. (2017). Teacher perception of professional learning communities on the instructional climate at Flintville Elementary School in Lincoln County, Te n n e s s e e (doctoral dissertation). Education Leadership, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City.
Graham, P. (2007). Improving teacher effectiveness through structured collaboration: A case study of a professional learning community. Research in Middle Level Education, 31(1), 1-17.
Gray, J., Kruse, S., and Tarter, J. (2015). Enabling school structures, collegial trust and academic emphasis: Antecedents of professional learning communities. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(6), 875-891.
Guadalupe, C., León, J., Rodríguez, J., and Vargas, S. (2017). Estado de la educación en el Perú: Análisis y perspectivas de la Educación Básica. Lima: Grade y Forge.
Gutierez, S. (2016). Building a classroom-based professional learning community through lesson study: Insights from elementary school science teachers. Professional Development in Education, 42(5), 801-817.
Hairon, S., and Dimmock, C. (2012). Singapore schools and professional learning communities: Teacher professional development and school leadership in an Asian hierarchical system. Educational Review, 64(4), 405-424.
Hargreaves, E., Berry, R., Lai, Y., Leung, P., Scott, D., and Stobart, G. (2013). Teachers’ experiences of autonomy in continuing professional development: Teacher learning communities in London and Hong Kong. Teacher Development, 17(1), 19-34.
Harris, A., and Jones, M. (2010). Professional learning communities and system improvement. Improving Schools, 13(2), 172-181.
Higgins, K. (2016). An investigation of professional learning communities in North Carolina school systems. Journal of Research Initiatives, 2(1), 1-21.
Hipp, K., and Huffman, J. (2010). Demystifying professional learning communities: School leadership at its best. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hipp, K., Huffman, J., Pankake, A., and Olivier, D. (2008). Sustaining professional learning communities: Case studies. Journal of Educational Change, 9(2), 173-195.
Ho, D., Lee, M., and Teng, Y. (2016). Exploring the relationship between school-level teacher qualifications and teachers’ perceptions of school-based professional learning community practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 54, 32-43.
Hoe, S. (2007). Shared vision: A development tool for organizational learning. Development and Learning in Organizations, 21(4), 12-13.
Hong, J., Snell, R., and Rowley, C. (2017). Organizational learning in Asia. Atlanta: Elsevier.
Hord, S. (1997a). Professional learning communities: What are they and why are they important? Issues about Change, 6(1), 1-8.
---------- (1997b). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
Horton, J., and Martin, B. (2013). The role of the district administration within professional learning communities. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 16(1), 55-70.
Hudson, P., Hudson, S., Gray, B., and Bloxham, R. (2013). Learning about being effective mentors: Professional learning communities and mentoring. Procedia, 93, 1291-1300.
Huffman, J. (2003). The role of shared values and vision in creating professional learning communities. NASSP Bulletin, 87(637), 21-34.
Jacob, J., and Yendol-Hoppey, D. (2010). Supervisor transformation within a professional learning community. Teacher Education Quarterly, 37(2), 97-114.
Jones, M., Gardner, G., Robertson, L., and Robert, S. (2013). Science professional learning communities: Beyond a singular view of teacher professional development. International Journal of Science Education, 35(10), 1756-1774.
Kilbane, J. (2009). Factors in sustaining professional learning community. NASSP Bulletin, 93(3), 184-205.
Krichesky, G. (2013). El desarrollo de las comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje: Procesos y factores de cambio para la mejora de las escuelas(Tesis doctoral). Madrid: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
Krichesky, G., and Murillo, J. (2011). Las comunidades profesionales de aprendizaje: Una estrategia de mejora para una nueva concepción de escuela. Revista Iberoamericana sobre Calidad, Eficacia y Cambio en Educación, 9(1), 65-83.
Kruse, S., and Jonhson, B. (2017). Tempering the normative demands of professional learning communities with the organizational realities of life in schools. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 45(4), 588-604.
Kullberg, A., Runesson, U., Marton, F., Vikström, A., Nilsson, P., Mårtensson, P., and Häggström, J. (2016). Teaching one thing at a time or several things together? Teachers changing their way of handling the object of learning by being engaged in a theory-based professional learning community in mathematics and science. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 22(6), 745-759.
Kurland, H., Peretz, H., and Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (2010). Leadership style and organizational learning: The mediate effect of school vision. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(1), 7-30.
Lance, A. (2010). A case study of two schools: Identifying core values conducive to the building of a positive school culture. Management in Education, 24(3), 118-123.
Lam, Y. (2005). School organizational structures: Effects on teacher and student learning. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(4), 387-401.
Leclerc, M., et Moreau, A. (2011). Communautés d’apprentissage professionnelles dans huit écoles inclusives de l’Ontario. Éducation et Francophonie, 39(2), 189-206.
Lee, M., and Kim, J. (2016). The emerging landscape of school-based professional learning communities in South Korean schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 266-284.
Lee, D., and Lee, W. (2013). A professional learning community for the new teacher professionalism: The case of a state-led initiative in Singapore schools. British Journal of Educational Studies, 61(4), 435-451.
Lee, J., Zhang, Z., and Yin, H. (2011). A multilevel analysis of the impact of a professional learning community, faculty trust in colleagues and collective efficacy on teacher commitment to students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(5), 820-830.
Leithwood, K. (2009). ¿Cómo liderar nuestras escuelas? Santiago de Chile: Área de Educación Fundación Chile.
Lieberman, A., and Mace, D. (2009). The role of ‘accomplished teachers’ in professional learning communities: Uncovering practice and enabling leadership. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(4), 459-470.
Lomos, C., Hofman, R., and Bosker, R. (2011). Professional communities and student achievement – a meta-analysis. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 22(2), 121-148.
López, J., Sánchez, M. y Altopiedi, M. (2011). Comunidades profesionales de práctica que logran sostener procesos de mejora institucional en las escuelas. Revista de Educación, 356, 109-131.
Mahler, J., and Casamayou, M. (2009). Organizational learning at NASA: The Challenger and Columbia accidents. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
Manohar, S., and Pandit, S. (2014). Core values and beliefs: A study of leading innovative organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(4), 667-680.Ministerio de Educación. (2012). Marco de buen desempeño docente. Lima: Minedu.
---------- (2014) Fascículo de gestión escolar centrada en los aprendizajes. Lima: Minedu.
Moreano, G. (Coord.). (2017). El Perú en Pisa 2015: Informe nacional de resultados. Lima: Minedu.
Mulford, B., and Silins, H. (2010) Organizational learning in schools. En P. Peterson, E. Baker, and B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (pp. 142-150). Oxford: Elsevier.
Mullen, C. (2009). (Ed.). The handbook of leadership and professional learning communities. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mullen, C., and Schunk, D. (2010). A view of professional learning communities through three frames: Leadership, organization, and culture. McGill Journal of Education, 45(2), 185-203.
Nehring, J., and Fitzsimons, G. (2011). The professional learning community as subversive activity: Countering the culture of conventional schooling. Professional Development in Education, 37(4), 513-535.
O’Malley, G. (2010). Designing induction as professional learning community. The Educational Forum, 74(4), 318-327.
Olivier, D., and Huffman, J. (2016). Professional learning community process in the United States: Conceptualization of the process and district support for schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 32(2), 301-317.
Owen, S. (2015). Teacher professional learning communities in innovative contexts. Professional Development in Education, 41(1), 57-74.
Pang, N., and Wang, T. (2016). Professional learning communities: Research and practices across six educational systems in the Asia-Pacific region. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 193-201.
Pang, N., Wang, T., and Leung, Z. (2016). Educational reforms and the practices of professional learning community in Hong Kong primary schools. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 231-247.
Pedretti, E., and Bellomo, K. (2013). A time for change: Advocating for STSE education through professional learning communities. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 13(4), 415-437.
Pirtle, S., and Tobia, E. (2014). Implementing effective professional learning communities. SEDL Insights, 2(3), 1-8.
Popp, J., and Goldman, S. (2016). Knowledge building in teacher professional learning communities: focus of meeting matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 347-359.
Prytula, M. (2012). Teacher metacognition within the professional learning community. International Education Studies, 5(4), 112-121.
Qiao, X., Yu, S., and Zhang, L. (2017). A review of research on professional learning communities in mainland China (2006–2015): Key findings and emerging themes. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. doi:10.1177/1741143217707523
Ratnapalan, S., and Uleryk, E. (2014). Organizational learning in health care organizations. Systems, 2, 24-33.
Ratts, R., Pate, J., Archibald, J., Andrews, S., Ballard, C., and Lowney, K. (2015). The influence of professional learning communities on student achievement in elementary schools. Journal of Education & Social Policy, 2(4), 51-61.
Richmond, G., and Manokore, V. (2011). Identifying elements critical for functional and sustainable professional learning communities. Science Teacher Education, 95(3), 543-570.
Rigelman, N., and Ruben, B. (2012). Creating foundations for collaboration in schools: Utilizing professional learning communities to support teacher candidate learning and visions of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(7), 979-989.
Rivas, J. (2003). La perspectiva cultural de la organización escolar: marco institucional y comportamiento individual. Educar, 31, 109-119.
Rodríguez, M. (2014). Organizing a professional learning community. A strategy to enhance professional development. Íkala. Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 19(3), 307-319.
Rodríguez-Gómez, D., and Gairín, J. (2015). Innovación, aprendizaje organizativo y gestión del conocimiento en las instituciones educativas. Educación, 24(46), 73-90.
Rutherford, C. (2006). Teacher leadership and organizational structure. Journal of Educational Change, 7(1-2), 59-76.
Sai, X., and Siraj, S. (2015). Professional learning community in education: literature review. The Online Journal of Quality in Higher Education, 2(2), 65-78.
Salazar-Morales, D. (2018) Sermons, carrots or sticks? Explaining successful policy implementation in a low performance institution. Journal of Education Policy, 33(4), 457-487.
Salleh, H. (2016). Facilitation for professional learning community conversations in Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 285-300.
Santos, J., and Steil, A. (2015). Organizational learning and power dynamics: A study in a Brazilian University. The Learning Organization, 22(2), 115-130.
Sargent, T., and Hannum, E. (2009). Doing more with less: Teacher professional learning communities in resource-constrained primary schools in rural China. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(3), 258-276.
Sigurðardóttir, A. (2010). Professional learning community in relation to school effectiveness. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(5), 395-412.
Sjoer, E., and Meirink, J. (2016). Understanding the complexity of teacher interaction in a teacher professional learning community. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 110-125.
Sleegers, P., Brok, P., Verbiest, E., Moolenaar, N., and Daly, A. (2013). Toward conceptual clarity: A multidimensional, multilevel model of professional learning communities in Dutch elementary schools. The Elementary School Journal, 114(1), 118-137.
Snow-Gerono, J. (2005). Professional development in a culture of inquiry: PDS teachers identify the benefits of professional learning communities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(3), 241-256.
Spanneut, G. (2010). Professional learning communities, principals, and collegial conversations. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 46(3), 100-103.
Stoll. L., and Kools, M. (2017). The school as a learning organization: A review revisiting and extending a timely concept. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 2(1), 2-17.
Stoll, L., and Louis, K. S. (2007). Professional learning communities: Divergence, depth and dilemmas. New York: Open University Press, McGraw-Hill.
Stoll, L., Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Wallace, M., and Thomas, S. (2006). Professional learning communities: A review of the literature. Journal of Educational Change, 7(4), 221-258.
Svanbjörnsdóttir, B., Macdonald, A., and Frímannsson, G. (2016a). Views of learning and a sense of community among students, paraprofessionals and parents in developing a school culture towards a professional learning community. Professional Development in Education, 42(4), 589-609.
---------- (2016b). Teamwork in establishing a professional learning community in a new Icelandic school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 60(1), 90-109.
Tam, A. (2015a). The role of a professional learning community in teacher change: a perspective from beliefs and practices. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 21(1), 22-43.
---------- (2015b). Exploring teachers’ beliefs about teacher learning in professional learning communities and their influence on collegial activities in two departments. Compare, 45(3), 422-444.
Teague, G., and Anfara, V. (2012). Professional learning communities create sustainable change through collaboration. Middle School Journal, 44(2), 58-64.
Thompson, S., Gregg, L., and Niska, J. (2004). Professional learning communities, leadership, and student learning. Research in Middle Level Education, 28(1), 1-15.
Unesco (2017). Revisión de las políticas públicas del sector de educación en Perú. París: Unesco.
Van Lare, M., and Brazer, S. (2013). Analyzing learning in professional learning communities: A conceptual framework. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 12(4), 374-396.
Vanblaere, B., and Devos, G. (2016a). Exploring the link between experienced teachers’ learning outcomes and individual and professional learning community characteristics. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 27(2), 205-227.
---------- (2016b). Relating school leadership to perceived professional learning community characteristics: A multilevel analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 57, 26-38.
---------- (2018). The role of departmental leadership for professional learning communities. Educational Administration Quarterly, 54(1), 85-114.
Vescio, V., Ross, D., and Adams, A. (2008). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 80-91.
Waller, W. (1965). The sociology of teaching. New York: Wiley.
Wang, T. (2015). Contrived collegiality versus genuine collegiality: Demystifying professional learning communities in Chinese schools. Compare, 45(6), 908-930.
---------- (2016). School leadership and professional learning community: Case study of two senior high schools in Northeast China. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 36(2), 202-216.
Watson, C. (2014). Effective professional learning communities? The possibilities for teachers as agents of change in schools. British Educational Research Journal, 40(1), 18-29.
Webb, R., Vulliamy, G., Sarja, A., Hämäläinen, S., and Poikonen, P. (2009). Professional learning communities and teacher well-being? A comparative analysis of primary schools in England and Finland. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 405-422.
Webster-Wright, A. (2009). Refraining professional development through understanding authentic professional learning. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 702-739.
Wells, C., and Feun, L. (2007). Implementation of learning community principles: A study of six high schools. NASSP Bulletin, 91(2), 141-160.
---------- (2013). Educational change and professional learning communities: A study of two districts. Journal of Educational Change, 14(2), 233-257.
Wennergren, A.-C., and Blossing, U. (2017). Teachers and students together in a professional learning community. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(1), 47-59.
Wong, J. (2010a). What makes a professional learning community possible? A case study of a Mathematics department in a junior secondary school of China. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(2), 131-139.
---------- (2010b). Searching for good practice in teaching: A comparison of two subject-based professional learning communities in a secondary school in Shanghai. Compare, 40(5), 623-639.
Wood, D. (2007). Professional learning communities: teachers, knowledge, and knowing. Theory into Practice, 46(4), 281-290.
Zhang, J., and Pang, N. (2016). Exploring the characteristics of professional learning communities in China: A mixed-method study. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(1), 11-21.
Zhang, J., Yuan, R., and Yu, S. (2017). What impedes the development of professional learning communities in China? Perceptions from leaders and frontline teachers in three schools in Shanghai. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 45(2), 219-237
Derechos de autor 2018 Sergio Morales Inga
Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0.